Chaverri-Fernández JM1,2, Cordero-García E2, Zavaleta-Monestel E1, Ramírez-Chavarría MF3, Barrantes-Jiménez P3, Díaz-Madriz JP1
1 Farmacéutico Clínico. Hospital Clínica Bíblica. San José (Costa Rica)
2 Facultad de Farmacia. Universidad de Costa Rica. San Pedro (Costa Rica)
3 Estudiante de Internado en Farmacia. Universidad de Costa Rica. San Pedro (Costa Rica)
Fecha de recepción: 04/05/2018 – Fecha de aceptación: 10/06/2018
Correspondencia: José Chaverri Fernández w Facultad de Farmacia, Ciudad Universitaria Rodrigo Facio, Universidad de Costa Rica w Dirección Postal 2060-1000 w San Pedro (Costa Rica)
Objective: To analyze the management of patients with hyponatremia during their stay in a private hospital in Costa Rica, as well as the specific reasons for this disease, to improve the management of this disease and its complications.
Method: Observational, retrospective study performed in a hospital with 80 beds in the period between January 2014 and January 2017. All patients were included who, on admission or during their stay, had sodium values less than or equal to 125 mEq / L. The clinical data obtained were grouped into five classifications: time of development of hyponatremia, plasma concentration of sodium, severity of symptoms, plasma osmolality and volume status.
Results: 102 patients were included in the study, of which 96% had hyponatremia prior to hospital admission. Neurological symptoms were present in 36% of cases. High blood pressure (HBP) and diabetes were the most frequent comorbidities (96% of patients). None of the patients received the amount of mEq sodium required and only two of the patients received a monitoring of plasma sodium values as established by the guidelines.
Conclusions: Hospital staff should be educated on the importance of proper management of hyponatremia, its possible adverse effects and the importance of establishing early treatment in order to avoid irreversible damage.
Key words: Hyponatremia, plasma sodium, osmolar concentration, hypotonic solutions, hypovolemia, hypernatremia.